Transport Case Study

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PyeongChang is a county in Gangwon province, South Korea and the third largest county in the country. It is located in the Taebaek Mountains region, and is home to a number of Buddhist temples, including Woljeongsa. The county is around 180 km to the east of Seoul, the capital of South Korea.

On 15 October 2009 PyeongChang was announced as an applicant city in the bidding process for the 2018 Winter Olympics. Annecy, France and Munich, Germany also are applicant cities. At the time of writing, PyeongChang's bid was 'considered to be the one to beat'. This is the county's third consecutive bid and if successful, PyeongChang would represent the first time the Winter Games were held in Asia since the 1998 Games in Nagano, Japan and the first time in another Asian country. Additionally, Munich and Annecy's bids may be hampered by having the previous Winter Olympic Games held in Sochi, Russia that is also in Europe. The three applicant cities for the 2018 Games represented a considerable decrease on the seven that put forward bids at the same stage for the 2014 event. Following a review and evaluation of the bid cities' applicant files, the IOC was due to announce the Candidate Cities for the 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on 21 June 2010. PyeongChang 2018 co–chairman Jin–Sun Kim revealed that the bid had strengthened its offering to the IOC for the Winter Games by adding " significant investment" in infrastructure and venue improvements. Kim said: " We believe PyeongChang 2018 is an ideal partner for the IOC. We want to show that we have worked tirelessly to keep our promises to the IOC, and have advanced our technical bid plan with significant investment in infrastructure and venue improvements. Our Applicant File highlights how PyeongChang 2018 will offer the Olympic movement the most compact and efficient Games plan in Olympic Winter Games history. " If elected as host city of the 2018 Winter Olympics, PyeongChang will utilise a total of 13 competition venues and sufficient training facilities during the event. Most of the seven existing venues were built for the 1999 Gangwon Asian Winter Games and were upgraded during PyeongChang's hapless bid for the 2014 Games. The remaining six venues will be configured in a collaborative effort among experts in the areas of urban planning, architectural design and the environment. These experts will design the venues to ensure they remain as sustainable Olympic legacies. The seven existing venues have already hosted various international winter sporting events. They have been certified by each International Federation and outfitted to meet or exceed Olympic standards. The Alpensia Precinct will be home to three venues for biathlon, cross country skiing and ski jumping. The biathlon venue was remodelled in 2007 and held the 2009 Biathlon World Championships, and the existing cross country skiing venue was upgraded in 2009 to meet Olympic standards. The ski jumping venue was newly constructed in 2009 with the national government and Gangwon provincial government's full–scale financial support, and it successfully hosted the FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup in September 2009. YongPyong Resort will be the venue for the alpine skiing (technical) competition. It has a solid reputation for offering skiers top–notch conditions, evidenced by its being elected host of the FIS Alpine Skiing World Cup four times in 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2006. Bokwang Phoenix Park will be the venue for freestyle skiing and snowboard events. The freestyle skiing venue was remodelled in 2005. The slope course in the snowboard venue will be improved to meet Olympic standards. The Gangneung Indoor Ice Rink will be the venue for the curling competition. The rink has held a variety of winter sporting events to great success including the 2005 ISU Four Continents Figure Skating Championships, the 2008 ISU World Short Track Speed Skating Championships, and the 2009 WCF World Women's Curling Championship. When it comes to transport, PyeongChang will build a ubiquitous and green system made up of a multimodal network of airways, highways and railroads that connect to venues and the Olympic Stadium as well as to Incheon International Airport. Indeed, 'state–of–the–art', 'safe', 'convenient' and 'environmental' are apt words to describe the transport system proposed by PyeongChang for the 2018 Winter Games. The cutting–edge Yeongdong Expressway and the Dongseo Expressway will split the transport demand to handle the large influx of foreign visitors through Incheon International Airport as well as spectators from the Seoul Metropolitan Area during the Winter Games. The Donghae Expressway will transport visitors from Busan, the second largest city in Korea. The Coastal Cluster already has an extensive urban arterial network and will not require further improvements. The road networks in the mountainous areas will be improved to meet the transport demand during the Winter Games. Some roadways have been undergoing improvements since the 2014 bidding process. Renovations of National Road 6 and Regional Road 456, which will be used as alternative roads to Yeongdong Expressway, began in 2009, and the 4 km section of the 30 km–long road in the Alpensia Cluster has been expanded to a 10 km, four–lane section. The construction of the access road to the Alpine Venue in YongPyong would begin immediately after PyeongChang is announced the Host City. The existing roads that link the standalone venues (Jungbong and Bokwang) to the Yeongdong Expressway are currently undergoing renovation, and this will continue regardless of the outcome of PyeongChang's bid as the national budget provides funding for the project each year. Expansion work is underway to upgrade the access road to Jungbong with the completion of a 7. 5 km–long section. Additionally, the expansion of the access road to Bokwang (5 km) into a four–lane road is slated to begin soon. All infrastructure improvement projects for PyeongChang 2018 are guaranteed by the national government and are being seamlessly carried out based on solid support at the national level. The express railroad between Wonju and Gangneung via PyeongChang, currently under construction and scheduled for completion in 2017, will allow trains to run at a speed of up to 230 km per hour. Each venue for the Winter Games will have its own station. When completed, the express railroad will link the existing Seoul to Wonju railroad and make PyeongChang accessible within two hours from the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Moreover, the completion of Yeongdong Expressway II in 2014 will ease the transport burden of the current Yeongdong Expressway. A new Olympic Interchange and a temporary large parking area with park–and–ride shuttle services will be installed for transport within the Alpensia Cluster and linked to existing roads. A low–carbon Green Road (10 km in length) will be constructed in the Alpensia Cluster for spectators. The median lane will be reserved for the electricity–powered Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and each of the shoulder lanes for pedestrians and for Bike–Rail or Electric Car Sharing, respectively. This green transport system will remain as a great Olympic legacy and as such serve to draw visitors to PyeongChang long after the Games is over. In addition, an 8. 2 km road that links the Alpensia Cluster and Jinbu Station will be built to increase railroad use. Incheon International Airport, the gateway to Korea and a hub airport in Asia, will serve as the main airport during the Olympic Winter Games. A total of 70 international airlines operate from the airport, serving 60 countries and 170 cities around the world and accommodating 30m passengers a year. Open since 2001, ICN is a state–of–the–art facility with the capacity to accommodate large aircrafts. It proved the competence of its workforce when it successfully served as the main airport for the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan and various other global events. With its excellent accessibility for people with disabilities, ICN will be used as the main airport for the Paralympic Winter Games as well. ICN has gained global recognition in the service sector. It was selected as the Best Airport Worldwide for four consecutive years (2005–08) in the ACI Airport Service Quality Survey, and was ranked the Best Airport in the World by US–based Global Traveler for four years in a row (2006–09). Yangyang International Airport, a major airport located near PyeongChang, will be used as the auxiliary airport during the Winter Games. The following are PyeongChang's four main operational strategies for transport during the 2018 Games. 1. Connectivity: With realtime information on traffic network and multimodal transfer systems offered through a cutting–edge ITS system, PyeongChang's proposed transportation plan will accommodate up to 70% of Olympic visitors via highways and 30% via railroad. Public transportation modes and shuttle bus services will be expanded and their intervals and schedules will be arranged according to transport demand. 2. Sustainability: The low–carbon Green Road (10 km) to be built in the Alpensia Cluster will be monitored and managed 24 hours a day. The median lane will be reserved for electricity–powered Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and each of the shoulder lanes for pedestrians and Bike–Rail and Electric Car Sharing, respectively. Only CNG and electric vehicles will be allowed to enter the Green Road. 3. Reliability: As the ITS system diverts private vehicles to alternative roads, the number of vehicles passing on roads will be maintained at an efficient level. Vehicles unrelated to the Winter Games will be regulated and guided to detour routes when necessary. Also, the roadway network within the Alpensia Cluster and the roads to the Coastal Cluster and venues will be designated as Olympic Lanes to be used exclusively by Olympic vehicles. When the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and other major events are held, the Green Road will run one–way in order to improve mobility. 4. Flexibility: Ubiquitous sensors will be installed on roads reserved for Olympic vehicles for the speedy detection of heavy snowfall, accidents, emergencies and terrorist activities in real time. These sensors will enable prompt and unerring responses by the Security Measures Headquarters that will work in partnership with OCOG's security team. The Transportation Management Centre to be installed in the Alpensia Cluster will be authorised to control all Olympic traffic in realtime during the Winter Games. For that purpose, a traffic consortium consisting of traffic–related personnel from both the public and private sectors will be established and provided the necessary workforce.

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